The human body is colonized by the microbial cells that are estimated to be as abundant as human cells, yet their genome is roughly 100 times the human genome, providing significantly more genetic diversity. The past decade has observed an explosion of interest in examining the existence of microbiota in the human body and understanding its role in various diseases including inflammatory bowel disease, neurologic diseases, cardiovascular disorders, and cancer.

Many studies have demonstrated differential community composition between normal tissue and cancerous tissue, paving the way for investigations focused on deciphering the cause-and-effect relationships between specific microbes and initiation and progression of various cancers.

Also, evolving are the strategies to alter tumor-associated dysbiosis and move it toward eubiosis with holistic approaches to change the entire neighborhood or to neutralize pathogenic strains. In this review, we discuss important pathogenic bacteria and the underlying mechanisms by which they affect cancer progression.

We summarize key microbiota alterations observed in multiple tumor niches, their association with clinical stages, and their potential use in cancer diagnosis and management. Finally, we discuss microbiota-based therapeutic approaches.

More information, here.