The gut microbiota, an often forgotten organ, have a tremendous impact on human health. It has long been known that the gut microbiota are implicated in cancer development, and more recently, the gut microbiota have been shown to influence cancer metastasis to distant organs.

Although one of the most common sites of distant metastasis is the bone, and the skeletal system has been shown to be a subject of interactions with the gut microbiota to regulate bone homeostasis, little research has been done regarding how the gut microbiota control the development of bone metastasis.

This review will discuss the mechanisms through which the gut microbiota and derived microbial compounds (i) regulate gastrointestinal cancer disease progression and metastasis, (ii) influence skeletal remodeling and potentially modulate bone metastasis, and (iii) affect and potentially enhance immunotherapeutic treatments for bone metastasis.

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