Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease that affects young adults; in that age group, it represents the second leading cause of disability in our setting. Its precise aetiology has not been elucidated, but it is widely accepted to occur in genetically predisposed patients who are exposed to certain environmental factors.

The discovery of the regulatory role played by intestinal microbiota in various autoimmune diseases has opened a new line of research in this field, which is discussed in this review.

Multiple evidence points to the role of microbiota in EAE. Extrapolation of these results to MS is still in the early stages of research, and studies are needed to define which bacterial populations are associated with MS, the role they play in pathogenesis, and the therapeutic possibilities this knowledge offers us.

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