The gut microbiota is well known to exert multiple benefits on human health including protection from disease causing pathobiont microbes. It has been recognized that healthy intestinal microbiota is of great importance in the pathogenesis of COVID-19. Gut dysbiosis caused by various reasons is associated with severe COVID-19.

Therefore, the modulation of gut microbiota and supplementation of commensal bacterial metabolites could reduce the severity of COVID-19. Many approaches have been studied to improve gut microbiota in COVID-19 including probiotics, bacterial metabolites, and prebiotics, as well as nutraceuticals and trace elements.

So far, 19 clinical trials for testing the efficacy of probiotics and synbiotics in COVID-19 prevention and treatment are ongoing. In this narrative review, we summarize the effects of various approaches on the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 and discuss associated mechanisms.

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