The human microbiome has not only captured the attention of scientists, but also of health professionals and the lay press. Although initial studies focused on characterizing the intestinal microbiome in the context of health and disease and the influence of environmental factors, there has been a shift in the field towards mechanistic research focused on the influence of the microbiome on the phenotype of the guest, with many unknowns, which emphasizes the need for further progress.

Such a growing interest in microbiome-related information is reflected in the way the Gut Microbiota for Health (GMFH) digital community has reached more than 80,000 members worldwide in 2019, including scientists, health professionals and general public.

These are some of the advances in the field in 2019:

– Host-microbe symbiosis in early life and its impact on maternal and neonatal health. Scientists have discovered that breast milk is an important source of fungi for the growing baby. The oligosaccharides of human milk are also present in the serum and can be predictors of the development of gestational diabetes mellitus in pregnancy.

-The members of the intestinal microbiome beyond bacteria also matter. The University College Cork scientists have revealed that the viral component of the intestinal microbiome is highly individual and stable in healthy individuals, and correlates with predominant intestinal bacterial taxa. Other are: It has come to focus on the microbiome of the small intestine for prediction functional gastrointestinal symptoms; Beyond dietary fiber: sun exposure and cooking can also explain interindividual variability in the intestinal microbiome; microbiota-intestine-brain omunication; the human intestinal microbiome as a potential source of new therapies and precision diagnoses; and probiotics and prebiotics

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