The correlations between microbiota dysbiosis and cancer have gained extensive attention and been widely explored. As a leading cancer diagnosis worldwide, lung cancer poses a great threat to human health.

The healthy human lungs are consistently exposed to external environment and harbor a specific pattern of microbiota, sharing many key pathological and physiological characteristics with the intestinal tract. Although previous findings uncovered the critical roles of microbiota in tumorigenesis and response to anticancer therapy, most of them were focused on the intestinal microbiota rather than lung microbiota.

Notably, the considerable functions of microbiota in maintaining lung homeostasis should not be neglected as the microbiome dysbiosis may promote tumor development and progression through production of cytokines and toxins and multiple other pathways.

Despite the fact that increasing studies have revealed the effect of microbiome on the induction of lung cancer and different disease status, the underlying mechanisms and potential therapeutic strategies remained unclear.

Herein, we summarized the recent progresses about microbiome in lung cancer and further discussed the role of microbial communities in promoting lung cancer progression and the current status of therapeutic approaches targeting microbiome to alleviate and even cure lung cancer.

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