Almost every aspect of cancer can be influenced by microbiota including tumor onset, progression, and response to therapy. The increasing evidence of the role of microbiota in human health and disease has reinvigorated the interest in designing microbial products that can affect cancer outcomes.

Researchers have made numerous attempts to develop safe, engineered biotherapeutic products for cancer treatment using synthetic biology tools. Despite the progress, only Bacillus Calmette-Guérin is approved for human use. Here, we highlight the recent advances and current challenges in using live bacteria as cancer therapeutics.

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