Bacteria have been found in tumors for over 100 years, but the irreproducibility of experiments on bacteria, the limitations of science and technology, and the contamination of the host environment have severely hampered most research into the role of bacteria in carcinogenesis and cancer treatment. With the development of molecular tools and techniques (e.g., macrogenomics, metabolomics, lipidomics, and macrotranscriptomics), the complex relationships between hosts and different microorganisms are gradually being deciphered. In the past, attention has been focused on the impact of the gut microbiota, the site where the body’s microbes gather most, on tumors. However, little is known about the role of microbes from other sites, particularly the intratumor microbiota, in cancer. In recent years, an increasing number of studies have identified the presence of symbiotic microbiota within a large number of tumors, bringing the intratumor microbiota into the limelight. In this review, we aim to provide a better understanding of the role of the intratumor microbiota in cancer, to provide direction for future experimental and translational research, and to offer new approaches to the treatment of cancer and the improvement of patient prognosis.

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