The human gut is a host for trillions of microorganisms, divided into more than 3,000 heterogeneous species that is called the gut microbiota. The gut microbiota composition can be altered by many different endogenous and exogenous factors, especially diet and nutrition. A diet rich in phytoestrogens, a variable group of chemical compounds similar to 17-β-estradiol (E2), the essential female steroid sex hormone is potent to change the composition of gut microbiota. However, the metabolism of phytoestrogens also highly depends on the action of enzymes produced by gut microbiota. Novel studies have shown that phytoestrogens could play an important role in the treatment of different types of cancers, such as breast cancer in women, due to their potential to decrease estrogen levels. This review aims to summarize recent findings about the lively dialogue between phytoestrogens and gut microbiota and to address their possible future application, especially in treating patients with diagnosed breast cancer. A potential therapeutic approach for the prevention and improving outcomes in breast cancer patients could be based on targeted probiotic supplementation with the use of soy phytoestrogens. A positive effect of probiotics on the outcome and survival of patients with breast cancer has been established. However, more in vivo scientific studies are needed to pave the way for the use of probiotics and phytoestrogens in the clinical practice of breast cancer treatment.

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