As the leading cause of cancer death, lung cancer seriously endangers human health and quality of life. Although many studies have reported the intestinal microbial composition of lung cancer, little is known about the interplay between intestinal microbiome and metabolites and how they affect the development of lung cancer. Herein, we combined 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) technology to analyze intestinal microbiota composition and serum metabolism profile in a cohort of 30 lung cancer patients with different stages and 15 healthy individuals. Compared with healthy people, we found that the structure of intestinal microbiota in lung cancer patients had changed significantly (Adonis, p = 0.021). In order to determine how intestinal flora affects the occurrence and development of lung cancer, the Spearman rank correlation test was used to find the connection between differential microorganisms and differential metabolites. It was found that as thez disease progressed, L-valine decreased.

Correspondingly, the abundance of Lachnospiraceae_UCG-006, the genus with the strongest association with L-valine, also decreased in lung cancer groups. Correlation analysis showed that the gut microbiome and serum metabolic profile had a strong synergy, and Lachnospiraceae_UCG-006 was closely related to L-valine. In summary, this study described the characteristics of intestinal flora and serum metabolic profiles of lung cancer patients with different stages. It revealed that lung cancer may be the result of the mutual regulation of L-valine and Lachnospiraceae_UCG-006 through the aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis pathway, and proposed that L-valine may be a potential marker for the diagnosis of lung cancer.

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